Mark 14:22-25 – The Last Supper
Jesus is having what is called the Passover meal with his disciples. This is an ancient Jewish holiday that was celebrated every year to serve as a reminder of what the Jewish people have experienced (specifically the Exodus story and the Passover lamb) and it also looked forward to the coming of Elijah and ultimately the Messiah. Jesus, being the Messiah, decided to show through the ceremony how he is the Messiah and thus the fulfillment of Passover. He tells them that he will be the perfect Passover Lamb. He uses the bread and wine to symbolize his body and blood and how it will be broken and spilled for us. Today we call this tradition the Lords Supper.
Jesus is referring all the way back to the Abraham Covenant set forth in Genesis 12-17. This covenant is the basis of all the Old Testament covenants (Noahic, Mosaic, Davidic, etc…). In short, they are all one big adapting covenant between God and his people so we will call it the Old Covenant for short. Jesus blood being poured out as the perfect sacrifice on the cross will be the ultimately fulfillment of this Old Covenant. At the exact same time Jesus is inaugurating or establishing a New Covenant; a covenant of grace! This covenant is first mentioned in Jeremiah 31:34.
31 “Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant that they broke, though I was their husband, declares the Lord. 33 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the Lord: I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 34 And no longer shall each one teach his neighbor and each his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest, declares the Lord. For I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.”